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His early edu- cation was conducted mostly at home, under a private tutor. James was the eldest of a family of seven children, four sons and three daughters, all of whom attained maturity. His voice was feeble though his enunciation was very dis- tinct. My son was a lad of sixteen, whom I had taken with me to act as amanuensis. Arthur 113 Groyer Cleveland 117 Benjamin Harrison 120 -^5|^ IV CONTENTS. Though the con- vention sat sixteen weeks, he spoke only twice ; but when he did speak, the whole house paused to listen. Madi- son's last speech: " The next day, as there was a great call for it, and the report had not been returned for publication, I sent my son with a re- spectful note, requesting the manuscript. In New York, alter the death of her husband, she was the belle of the season and was surrounded with admirers. With great abilit}' he discharged the duties of this responsible office during the eight years of Mr. Madison usually presided over the festivities of the White House; and as her husband succeeded Mr. She speedily laid aside the dress and address of the Quakeress, and became one of the most fascinating ladies of the republican court. The great re- action in public sentiment which seated Jefferson in the presidential chair was large- ly owing to the writings of Madison, who was consequently well entitled to the post of Secretary of State. Jefferson was a widower, and neither of his daughters could be often with him, Mrs. rest for the fortune of our political bark." But Mr. His term in Congress had expired, and he returned from New York to his beautiful retreat at Montpelier. Madison married a young widow of remarkable powers of fascination — Mrs. When but eighteen years of age she married a young lawyer and moved to Philadelphia, where she was introduced to brilliant scenes of fashionable life. The storm passed away ; the Alien and Sedition laws were repealed, John Adams lost his re-election, and in 1801 Thomas Jef- ferson was chosen President. In 1796 he was its choice for the Presidency as successor to Wash- ington. Jefferson wrote : " There is not another person in the United States with whom, being placed at the helm of our affairs, my mind would be so completely at 30 PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES. She was born in 1767, in Vir- ginia, of Quaker parents, and had been educated in the strictest rules of that sect. If there was any diffident, timid young girl just making her appearance, she found in Mrs. During the storm v administration of John Adams Madison remained in private life, but was the author of the celebrated " Reso- lutions of 1798," adopted by the Virginia Legislature, in condemnation of the Alien and Sedition laws, as well as of the " report" in which he defended those resolutions, which is, by many, considered his ablest State paper.

On the i8th of June, 1812, President Madison gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring war against Great Brit- ain.

B 785 Chamberlain, E VV 578 Chamberlain, M 693 Childers, J. During his second term our relations with England became more com- plicated, and on June 22, 1807, near Hamp- ton Roads, the United States frigate Chesapeake was fired upon by the Brit- ish man-of-war Leopard, and was made to surrender. More than 1,200 Ameri- cans were forced into the British service upon the high seas. There, at Monticello, his sub- sequent life was ver}' similar to that of Washington Mt. His hospi- tality toward his numerous friends, indul- gence of his slaves, and misfortunes to his property, etc., finally involved him in debt. Jefferson did much for the establish- ment of the University at Charlottesville, making it unsectarian, in keeping with the spirit of American institutions, but poverty and the feebleness of old age prevented liim from doing what he would. AMES MADISON, the fourth President of the United States, i Socj-'ij, was born at Port Con- waj', Prince George County, \'irgini:i, March i6, 1 75 1.

The same year he was re-elected to the Presidency, with George Clinton as Vice- President. England grew insolent, ft became evident that war was determined upon by the latter power. Amid all these public excitements he thought constantly of the welfare of his family, and longed for the time when he could return home to remain.

There was no mind and no pen more active in framing this immortal document than the mind and pen of James Madison.

George Washington was chosen president of the convention, and the present Constitution of the United States was then and there formed.

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